By Elizabeth Endicott
An illustrated background of the pastoral nomadic lifestyle in Mongolia, this ebook examines the numerous demanding situations that Mongolian herders proceed to stand within the fight over ordinary assets within the post-socialist unfastened industry period.
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Additional info for A History of Land Use in Mongolia: The Thirteenth Century to the Present
Many of these wells were drilled to depths ranging from 30 to over 200 feet, Mongolia’s Regions 25 and they operated with mechanical pumps. With the privatization of negdel assets in the early 1990s, ownership rights over wells were generally undefined; lack of clear possession led to broken well pumps being left unrepaired or sold for scrap metal to Chinese buyers. With spare parts for well pumps no longer being supplied by the Soviet Union, only one in five wells in Mongolia functioned in 2004 out of some 24,600 that had been built nationwide in the previous four decades.
When we look at those few passages that mention authority over pastureland in the Secret History of the Mongols (1228), the earliest written history of the Mongols by an anonymous Mongolian author, we may get some sense of how rights of access to pastureland could be allocated by a supratribal leader. In Secret History §219, Chinggis Khan rewarded Sorqan Šira, who several years earlier had helped shield the young Temüjin from the hostile Tayiči’ut. ’ ”2 Thus, pastureland that had once belonged to the Merkit tribe, a tribe defeated in battle by Chinggis Khan, was given to reward past service and to encourage ongoing loyalty to the Khan.
Khubilai’s reign (1260–1294) oversaw the consolidation of conquered territories within China proper and the establishment of the Yuan Dynasty in 1272. Thus, the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty ruled all of China from 1279 to 1368. Not surprisingly, the Mongols were exposed to long-established Chinese legal codes, modes of rulership, and particularly the weight of a dominant bureaucratic hierarchy. In response to Chinese traditions, the Mongolian khans crafted a system of ruling that blended their own customary laws, Chinese legal and administrative practices, and influences from the Central Asian peoples—Uighurs, Tibetans, and others—whom they employed to balance the potentially overwhelming Chinese presence.
A History of Land Use in Mongolia: The Thirteenth Century to the Present by Elizabeth Endicott